Brewing hop kits
My main objective in presenting this article is to assist our readers of this site (saveonlinemart.com) to be familiar with various equipment and devices necessary to produce your own beer at home. However, I advise you to purchase your own raw materials such as hops beer kits from your local shop.
1st step: Preparation of equipment, cleaning, sterilization before using hops beer kits
|Brewing = cleaning. The best place for brewing is in the kitchen. Gather all necessary equipment to avoid running in search of missing material during brewing. Pour your favorite cleaner and disinfectant (chemipro OXI (sodium percarbonate), star san or other equivalent product), or bleach (beware of the smell) in the fermentation tank add water. Dip all bakeware (spoons, bubbler, decanter, test tube) for a few minutes. Clean the tanks, faucets and lids. Rinse thoroughly if bleach is used and dry thoroughly. One of the keys to success is cleanliness! The contamination of the brew with bacteria may lead directly to its loss rather than in your mouth. ( hops beer kits )
2nd step: Sterilization of the brewing water ( hops beer kits )
In order to avoid potential contamination of the must with dubious foreign liquid, it is best to sterilize the water that will be added to the fermentation tank.
To do so, just to boil the water with a saucepan or kettle. The amount of water to boil depends directly on the amount of beer to be brewed. Once the boiled water has cooled down in a clean and covered container (ideally the fermentation tank previously sterilized) in order to later add it to the concentrated must. (Must is the juice of freshly pressed grapes, prior to fermentation into wine. Must contains various quantities of pulp, skins, stems, and seeds,) This step can be done the day before to allow time for the water to cool and also the chlorine to degrade naturally. It is also possible to directly use spring water in bottles, theoretically fit for consumption it does not require boiling. ( hops beer kits )
3rd step: Streaming ( hops beer kits )
Heat a bottom of water in a saucepan, open the box of concentrated beer essence, put it in the pan to allow the concentrated beer essence to soften. Meanwhile, in a large saucepan, boil 5 liters of water. When the concentrated beer essence is sufficiently liquid, pour it into the large pot of water. Entirely scrape the concentrated beer essence on the sides of the can. To get all the concentrated materials, you can pour a little hot water in and mix the amount of MUST already being diluted for kits. Avoid the maximum losses of this kind. ( hops beer kits )
4th step: brewing ( hops beer kits )
The amount of extract contained in the kit is not sufficient enough, it is generally asked to add sugar in the MUST. The quantity to be added is indicated in the instructions of the beer kit, it depends on the type of beer, the brand and the quantity to be brewed. There is a variant to improve the final result is the use of malt extract (powder or liquid) instead of sugar that does not bring any body to the beer. You can choose a malt extract related to the style of beer or else use the blond extract that is the most versatile and the sweetest. Be aware that the powdered malt extract has a sweetening power lower than that of sugar. Accordingly, it is necessary to increase the proportions of 25% of the amount of sugar initially planned. That is 1,250 kg of extract for 1 kg of sugar. Dosages are sometimes also recalled by the extract manufacturers. Bring the mixture to a boil. Strong boiling must be obtained with good wort rolls. (Wort is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky.Wort contains the sugars that will be fermented by the brewing yeast to produce alcohol.) It may be necessary to partially cover (but never totally!) Cover the pan with its lid to get a strong boil but beware of overflows. The onset of boiling is often accompanied by quite impressive foam formation. ( hops beer kits )
It is possible to restrain the boil of the foam by lowering the heat or by removing the pan from the fire if it rises too much. Consequently, the foam would disappear after a few minutes of cooking. During cooking, bitter scum can be noticed because it contains hops resins. It is advisable to remove this foam to get a less aggressive bitterness in the end. Some basic kits are too bitter and devoid of aromatic hopping. Accordingly, the result was sometimes difficult to drink without frowning. Let the MUST boil for about 30 minutes in total. You can precisely achieve another axis of an improvement of the hop kits by adding a quantity of aromatic hoping at the end of boiling. To make use of twenty grams of hop cones in a hop bag during the last 5 minutes should already do the trick. When the boiling time is over, turn off the heat and remove the hops if you have added them. ( hops beer kits )
Step 5: Preparation of leaven
( leaven is a substance, as yeast or baking powder, that causes fermentation and expansion of dough or batter. fermented dough reserved for producing fermentation in a new batch of dough. An element that produces an altering or transforming influence)
We will be interested in the preparation of leaven. To do this, fill half a glass of warm water (20-25 ° C) and sterilized, the temperature should not exceed 30 ° C otherwise risk of killing the yeast! Then pour the packet of yeast into the glass. After a few minutes it will reactivate and a foam will form in the glass, a sign that cellular activity is resumed. Leaven helps to promote the development of yeast and to obtain a more vigorous fermentation. ( hops beer kits )
We can possibly do without the leavening step and add the yeast directly into the cooled must in the next step but this does not promote the multiplication of yeast.
6th step: cooling the MUST, preparing the fermentation
Boil the water to dilute the MUST in the previous day (step 2). In that case since the volume of cold water was relatively large, the cooling would be faster. Pour the MUST into the fermentation tank, add the boiled water until the volume of beer is obtained (indicated on the hops beer kits ).
There are several wort cooling techniques (natural method, cooling coil, plate heat exchanger). In any case, it is important to cool the must as soon as possible because infections are easily formed at temperatures between 20 and 70 ° C. As we travel through these temperatures during cooling, it is very important to use clean and sterile materials.
Natural cooling can be long and perilous for the must then exposed to an increased risk of infection as long as it is not fermented. If you opt for this method gently transfer the hot mash and boiled water into the fermenter then close it hermetically. Place it in a cool place and of course sow it as quickly as possible once the must has cooled down.
If you are equipped with a cooling coil, plunge it into the wort pan 10 minutes before the end of boiling to sterilize it. If it does not return, it is possible to cool in the fermentation tank, pour in the boiling must and the boiling water. Then connect one end of the hose to the cold water faucet. The other pipe is placed in a large bucket or sink. Open the tap, the water circulates in the coil and cools the must by heat exchange. Control the temperature of the must to reach a temperature of about 20 ° C. Shake slightly to make the temperature uniform. Once the must has cooled, remove the cooling coil.
It is possible to add the yeast to the must when the temperature is lower than 25 ° C without risk of killing it. Then mix well with a large disinfected spatula to aerate the wort to the maximum (the yeast needs oxygen for its cellular activity). If you have a density meter it is the right time to take the contents of a test tube of must for the next step, a few drops will suffice if you have a refractometer. Then cover the tank with the lid and place the bubbler in the hole provided for this purpose.
Step 7: Measuring Initial Density
The density of the must is measured using a density meter or a refractometer. Pour the sample taken into a sufficiently filled test tube in order to have a correct density measurement at the density meter or to deposit a few drops on the prism of the refractometer. Do not return the must taken to the tank to avoid contamination. The measurement of density before fermentation will make it possible to know the sugar content initially present (initial density), but it will also be useful to know the final alcohol content of the beer. The higher the initial density, the stronger the beer will be in alcohol.
Place the fermentation tank in a dry, clean, low light and at a fairly constant temperature between 18 and 22 ° C in the case of a high fermentation yeast.
Some yeasts develop unpleasant flavors above these temperatures. If the temperature is below 18 ° C, the yeast will probably stop working and fermentation will be interrupted. For a low fermentation yeast, place the tank at a temperature between 10 and 15 ° C. Too strong a temperature will not be favorable for the taste and a too low temperature will not allow a good development of the yeasts.Moderately fill the bubbler with water and chemipro or with a strong alcohol and place the small red cap on it (it is not an airtight cap).
The fermentation of beer undergoes a unique process that obeys the life cycle of the yeast, for practical reasons it is often distinguished in 3 phases.
1- The phase of breathing or adaptation (in English “lag time”)
Duration: a few hours to a day at the temperature required by the yeast used.
During the first hours (this can last up to 24 hours if the yeast dose is too low or the yeast is not very fit) following the inoculation of the must by the yeast, the presence of oxygen allows the cell multiplication of yeasts, the oxygenation of the must, the health and the type of yeast as well as the temperature are important kinetic factors. It is the breathing and multiplication phase of aerobic yeasts (presence of oxygen). It is during this first stage that brown and creamy foam (kräusen) are visible from the outside and are formed on the surface of the fermenter. Do not froth up this foam. It is a normal activity of the yeast and also a good indicator of the progress of the fermentation.
2- The primary fermentation phase also called tumultuous fermentation (in English “primary” or “log phase”)
Duration: a few days to a week at the temperature required by the yeast used. Oxygen has been consumed, the yeasts in suspension in the must are found in anaerobic, they continue to multiply until reaching the maximum population and now degrade carbohydrates by a fermentative metabolism (glycolysis) which leads to the formation of ethanol and CO2.
It is during this time that the fermentation will be the most active because the presence of maximum fermentable sugars. The activity of the yeast releases a lot of CO2 which causes incessant “gurgles” in the bubbler, sign that the fermentation is going well. Check the water level in the bubbler from time to time and add if necessary. Krausen is always visible on the surface of the must in fermentation. It can be seen the high pressure in the bucket, the levels of the bubbler are not equivalent. Progressively the activity will begin to reduce and there is not too much “gurgling” in the bubbler and the lid of the tank is not too bulging by pressure. We can also see that the levels of the bubbler are roughly equivalent. The fermentation is nevertheless not over and it is important not to bottle immediately!
Optional step: Tank transfer
It is also after this primary fermentation stage that it is possible to carry out a tank transfer in order to remove some of the dead yeasts at the bottom of the tank, but also to remove the residues of the brewing (hops, coagulated proteins). and fermentation (kräusen). This allows for a clearer beer and less deposit in the bottoms, especially if the bucket is not handled carefully before bottling. But this tank transfer is quite controversial because it exposes the beer to a risk of contamination and oxidation. The transfer is optional given the relatively short fermentation time for a low or medium fermentation high fermentation brew there is little chance of transmitting false taste to beer linked for example to the autolysis of yeast. The transfer will be rather useful in the case of low fermentation beers and high fermentation beers with high density because the secondary fermentation times will be more important. In all cases it will be necessary to perform later a vat transfer before bottling.
Note the brown traces of kräusen on the top of the bucket. The bottom of the tank is composed of yeast deposit, hop residues and coagulated malt proteins.
Here’s how to proceed if you want to perform a tank transfer:
– Disinfect the faucet of the tank.
– Disinfect the end of the hose and the second bucket of fermentation.
– Place the hose on the tap (avoids the oxidation of the beer).
– Remove the bubbler (otherwise suction of the liquid!)
– Empty the beer in the second bucket, if the deposit passes it does not matter there will be a second transfer before bottling.
– Replace the lid and the bubbler.
Attention to the bubbler during the displacement of the bucket of fermentation, the deformations of the plastic cause an aspiration of its contents in the tank! It is better to remove it for the maneuver.
3- The secondary fermentation phase or stationary phase.
Duration: 2 to 3 weeks at the temperature required by the yeast used + possibly 1 week of cold storage at very low temperature.
Once the fermentation is well advanced, the yeast begins to feel the lack of fermentable materials, the activity is thus found gradually reduced and the yeast is found to consume sugars more difficult to transform like maltotriose. In addition, certain undesirable components such as diacetyl and acetaldehyde are reabsorbed during this quieter fermentation phase. The yeast begins to enter the rest phase and sinks into the bottom of the fermentation tank to create sediment. During the sedimentation phase, the yeast produces glycogen which keeps it dormant. The activity does not cause much or no “glouglou” in the bubbler, it is normal and it is not necessary to add sugar or yeast to restart the fermentation at this stage. ( hops beer kits )
Optional step: cold guard phase or cold crash
In the last days before bottling it is interesting to keep the beer at a very low temperature (minimum 2 ° C), if we have such conditions, to sediment the maximum of yeasts and residues such as hops of a dry hopping for example. This operation can be done quickly in the refrigerator or by taking a little more time in a cold place (cellar, garage, igloo …). ( hops beer kits )
The secondary fermentation can take between two weeks and a month, it is a step not to neglect that allows to finish the fermentation of the beer quietly. So that the fermentation can continue its process, I leave the tank still 2 weeks warm because it happens that the fermentation is slightly revived after the transfer of optional tank (I do it because the displacement of the bucket between the apartment and the cellar stirs too much deposit and gives me a cloudy beer). Then I go down the bucket to the cellar (between 10 and 17 ° C depending on the season) for 2-3 weeks for the beer to clear and yeasts sediment. For a low fermentation beer all the fermentation takes place in the cellar between 10 and 15 °C. ( hops beer kits )
The bottling allows to keep the beer in order to be able to drink it in the future. Fermentation turns sugar into alcohol and CO2. The purpose of the re fermentation in bottle is to dissolve the CO2 in the beer (carbonation) because it remains this time locked in the bottle encapsulated. To allow the re fermentation and therefore a good carbonation, we must add sugar. The higher the concentration, the stronger the carbonation and the more sparkling beer will be. For this step I gather a sufficient number of bottles of various sizes and types according to my needs. All bottles are then soaked in a solution of active oxygen disinfectant (chemipro OXI) to avoid any problem of infection in the bottle.
Before bottling it is necessary to carry out a bucket transfer in order to remove all the fermentation residues. This allows for a clearer beer and a lower deposit in bottles. The method is the same as that described in the previous step for the transition from primary to secondary fermentation. During this step it is also possible to take a beer sample to carry out a density measurement. This should normally be at its minimum (between 1015 and 1005 depending on the yeasts) because the fermentable sugars must now all be converted into alcohol by the yeasts. The difference between the initial and final densities gives a small calculation an estimate of the alcohol content in the beer. A calculation tool is also available: How to measure the alcohol content in beer?
After racking the beer into the second disinfected bucket, prepare some sugar syrup according to the dosage you want to have. For 20L of beer at 6g / L of sugar I dilute 120g of sugar in 1 / 2L of boiling water. I let it cool a little then I gently add the syrup into the bucket while stirring without oxygenating too much. It is generally advisable to add between 5 and 10 grams of sugar per liter of beer. With 6g / L, the result is very satisfying, the beer is sparkling.
It is advisable not to abuse the dose of sugar during bottling otherwise the bottle may explode or empty itself when it opens!
Once the bottles are filled, capsulate them with the help of the capper. Beware there are two standard capsules, the diameter 26mm for small bottles (25, 33 and 50cL) and the diameter 29mm for large bottles type (37.5 and 75cL). Mechanical stopper bottles are also very popular with amateur brewers. These bottles again are reusable for how many times you want. You need to check from time to time the state of rubbers to be disinfected with bottles before use.
The re fermentation
Place the bottles upright in a cool place and at a stable temperature between 20 and 25 ° C. Let it rest for 2-3 weeks until the fermentation in bottles is done well. The sugar introduced during the bottling will allow the yeasts to continue their process and this time the remaining gas enclosed in the bottle, will mix with the beer thus making it gaseous. It can be noticed that the re fermentation goes well by the presence of a deposit of yeast (lie) in the bottom of the bottles.
Once you have encapsulated the beer in bottles, the ideal place for storing the bottles is in a cool, dry and protected area from light, such as a cellar or garage.
After the period of re fermentation, the beer would be drinkable. But this is where you have to be patient and wait for the beer to complete in bottles. A longer period of care (1 to 2 months) will only refine the taste of the beer, making it less harsh. It is possible to keep bottled beer for over a year, especially for brown beers that are high in alcohol. The taste in the long run will be less bitter and tend towards the maderisation, to try! Patience and perseverance are the secrets of the brewer … on this, good brewing! ( hops beer kits )